Innovation to Improve Critical Thinking Skills in the Generation Z using Peeragogy as a Learning Approach and Artificial Intelligence (AI) as a Tool


  • Gembong Baskoro Swiss German University, Tangerang
  • Ita Mariza Gajah Tunggal Polytechnic
  • I Nyoman Sutapa Industrial Engineering Department, Petra Christian University



Innovation in Learning, Critical Thinking, Generation Z, Peeragogy, Artificial Intelligence


The current generation, known as generation Z (Gen Z), is a generation that lives and is familiar with information technology in everyday life, including but not limited to learning purposes. Gen Z is characterized by teamwork in cyberspace and solving problems. Gen Z can also adopt artificial intelligence (AI) technology as their learning tool. Meanwhile, Gen Z faces the challenge of acquiring 21st-century skills requiring higher-order thinking (HOTS). This paper will focus on learning skills, especially critical thinking (CT). For this reason, it is essential to improve the competency of CT skills in Gen Z by using a model that combines the 7E learning cycle with peeragogy learning approach and adopting the latest AI applications as a tool. This model will contribute to the theoretical and practical use of AI apps for education, particularly the role of correct utilization of AI. Additionally, it can be misused to improve learning skills, especially CT skills. The results carried out in class show AI's effectiveness in improving CT skills for Gen Z, especially the role of AI in the back-end learning process, namely to verify and validate understanding. This paper suggests that AI apps should be controlled if used in the front-end learning process, especially at the exploration stage, to improve CT skills. Without controlling the AI apps, they can reduce learners' ability to explore a topic according to their creativity and criticality.

Author Biographies

Gembong Baskoro, Swiss German University, Tangerang


Ita Mariza, Gajah Tunggal Polytechnic

SCOPUS ID: 57192404092, SINTA ID: 6127934, GS ID: Cq6cosMAAAAJ

I Nyoman Sutapa, Industrial Engineering Department, Petra Christian University

SINTA ID: 36835715800, SINTA ID: 6122708, GS ID: 7BLiRzsAAAAJ


A. Alruthaya, T.-T. Nguyen, and S. Lokuge, “The application of digital technology and the learning characteristics of Generation Z in higher education,” pp. 1–7, 2021, [Online]. Available:

S. Katoningsih and I. Sunaryo, “Programme for International Student Assesment (PISA) as reading literacy standard: critical thinking skill is priority,” Educ. Sustain. Soc., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 08–10, 2020, doi: 10.26480/ess.01.2020.08.10.

M. Miterianifa, A. Ashadi, S. Saputro, and S. Suciati, “Higher order thinking skills in the 21st Century: Critical thinking,” 2021, doi: 10.4108/eai.30-11-2020.2303766.

Pacific Policy Research Center, “21st century skills for students and teachers.,” Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools, Research & Evaluation Division, 2010. [Online]. Available:

N. E. Association, “Preparing 21st century students for a global society: an educator’s guide to the ‘Four Cs,’” 2012. [Online]. Available:

F. Miao, W. Holmes, R. Huang, and H. Zhang, AI and education: Guidance for policy-makers. UNESCO, 2021. doi: 10.54675/PCSP7350.

B. R. Kupperschmidt, “Multigeneration employees: Strategies for effective management,” Health Care Manag. (Frederick)., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 65–76, Sep. 2000, doi: 10.1097/00126450-200019010-00011.

T. Rancis and F. Hoefel, “‘True gen’: Generation Z and its implications for companies,” McKinsey & Company, 2018. [Online]. Available:

A. P. Singh and J. Dangmei, “Understanding the generation z: The future workforce,” South -Asian J. Multidiscip. Stud., no. April, pp. 1–6, 2016.

M. Mihelich, “Another generation rises: Looking beyond the millennials,” [Online]. Available:

Bascha, “Z: The open source generation,” [Online]. Available:

T. Bridges, “5 ways the workplace needs to change to get the most out of generation z,” Fast Company. [Online]. Available:

McKinsey Explainers, “What is gen Z?,” McKinsey Co., no. March 2023, p. 5, 2023.

Z. E. Csobanka, “The Z generation,” Acta Technol. Dubnicae, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 63–76, Aug. 2016, doi: 10.1515/atd-2016-0012.

I. Mufidah, L. R. Husaini, and D. Caesaron, “Improving online learning through the use of learning management system platform: a technology acceptance model-technology readiness index combination model approach,” J. Tek. Ind., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 61–72, 2022, doi: 10.9744/jti.24.1.61-72.

S. A. Priyambada, M. ER, and B. N. Yahya, “Curriculum assessment of higher educational institution using trace-segmented clustering,” Jurnal Teknik Industri: Jurnal Keilmuan dan Aplikasi Teknik Industri, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 33–48, 2018, doi: 10.9744/jti.20.1.33-48.

S. A. Ambrose, M. W. Bridges, M. DiPietro, M. C. Lovett, and M. K. Norman, How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint, 2010. [Online]. Available:

L. Gauthier, “How learning works: 7 research-based principles for smart teaching,” J. Scholarsh. Teach. Learn., pp. 126–129, Dec. 2013, doi: 10.14434/josotl.v14i1.4219.

R. W. Bybee, Achieving scientific literacy: From purposes to practices. Heinemann, 1997.

R. Marfilinda, Zaturrahmi, and E. Suma Indrawati, “Development and application of learning cycle model on science teaching and learning : A literature review,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1317, no. 1, p. 012207, Oct. 2019, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1317/1/012207.

R. W. Bybee and N. M. Landes, “Science for life and living: An elementary school science program from biological sciences curriculum study,” Am. Biol. Teach., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 92–98, Feb. 1990, doi: 10.2307/4449042.

A. Eisenkraft, “Expanding the 5E model,” Sci. Teach., vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 56–59, 2003, [Online]. Available:

Ms. Shaista Rahman and Dr. Rekha Chavhan, “7E model: An effective instructional approach for teaching learning,” EPRA Int. J. Multidiscip. Res., pp. 339–345, Feb. 2022, doi: 10.36713/epra9431.

M. R. S. Shanti, E. Istiyono, and S. Munadi, “The effectiveness of learning to improve students’ higher-order thinking skills,” Cypriot J. Educ. Sci., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1576–1587, 2022, doi: 10.18844/cjes.v17i5.7220.

A. L. Ball and B. L. Garton, “Modeling higher order thinking: The alignment between objectives, classroom discourse, and assessment,” J. Agric. Educ., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 58–69, Jun. 2005, doi: 10.5032/jae.2005.02058.

L. W. Anderson and D. R. Krathwohl, A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Longman, 2001.

P. Chance, Thinking in the classroom: A survey of programs. Teachers College Press, 1986.

M. C. Tama, “Critical thinking has a place in every classroom,” J. Read., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 64–65, 1989.

L. M. Mertes, “Thinking and writing,” Middle Sch. J., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 24–25, May 1991, doi: 10.1080/00940771.1991.11496002.

A. M. S. Atabaki, N. Keshtiaray, and M. H. Yarmohammadian, “Scrutiny of critical thinking concept,” Int. Educ. Stud., vol. 8, no. 3, Feb. 2015, doi: 10.5539/ies.v8n3p93.

M. Scriven and R. Paul, “Defining critical thinking,” 2008. [Online]. Available:

M. Lipman, “Critical thinking: what can it be?,” in Contemporary Issues in Curriculum (Allyn & Bacon Educational Leadership), 6th ed., no. Contemporary Issues in Curriculum, Pearson, 1995, pp. 145–152.

J. Chaffee, Thinking critically. Houghton Mifflin, 2004.

B. Trilling and C. Fadel, 21st century learning skills. Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint, 2009. [Online]. Available: Learning_for_Life_in_Our_Times____2009-3.pdf

J. Santrock, Educational psychology, 6th ed. McGraw Hill, 2017.

L. G. Snyder and M. J. Snyder, “Teaching critical thinking and problem solving skills,” Delta Pi Epsil. J., vol. L, no. 2, pp. 90–99, 2008, [Online]. Available: wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Optional-_Teaching-Critical-Thinking-and-Problem-Solving-Skills.pdf

J. Kruger and D. Dunning, “Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one’s own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments,” J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 1121–1134, 1999, doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121.

I. Shatz, “The stages of learning: How you become more competent at skills,” Effectiviology. [Online]. Available:

B. Erwin and J. Culbertson, “The four stages of competence: How do they affect course design?,” MIAMI University.

B. Alexander et al., The peeragogy handbook, 3rd ed. PubDomEd and Pierce Press., 212AD. [Online]. Available:

J. Corneli and C. J. Danoff, The peeragogy handbook, v. 3: The No-Longer-Missing Guide to Peer Learning & Peer Production. Pierce Press / Daytripper Books, 2016.

A. Kaplan and M. Haenlein, “Rulers of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of artificial intelligence,” Bus. Horiz., vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 37–50, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.bushor.2019.09. 003.

J. McCarthy, M. L. Minsky, N. Rochester, and C. E. Shannon, “A proposal for the dartmouth summer research project on artificial intelligence,” AI Mag., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 12–14, 2006.




How to Cite

G. Baskoro, I. Mariza, and I. N. Sutapa, “Innovation to Improve Critical Thinking Skills in the Generation Z using Peeragogy as a Learning Approach and Artificial Intelligence (AI) as a Tool”, Jurnal Teknik Industri: Jurnal Keilmuan dan Aplikasi Teknik Industri, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 121-130, Oct. 2023.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>